Here’s a brief article about a favorite classroom example of mine. The 1890 US Census used tabulating machine technology developed by Herman Hollerith.
His company formed the foundation of IBM.
I keep a stack of Hollerith cards in my office, and sometimes I’ll bring these punch cards to class to show students how data was stored in the analog era.
Here’s a punch card from the 1960 US Census (image courtesy Universitaet Klagenfurt)